Malaysia is located between the Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea on one side, and the Indian Ocean and the Malacca Straits on the other, making it a country located in the middle of Southeast Asia. Its geographical feature positions Malaysia as a continental-rooted maritime nation, the linchpin bridge between the two ocean regions (“Defence White Paper”). This undoubtedly indicates that Malaysia priority will be placed upon matters pertaining maritime domain and maritime security.
Several analysts who have interviewed or maintain contacts with Chinese foreign policymakers have noted that according to their sources, China’s long-term priority in Pakistan has been to prioritize security concerns over economic ones. Several analysts who have interviewed or contacted China’s foreign policymakers claim that China’s long-term priority in Pakistan is to prioritize security over economic interests, according to their sources.
Apart from economic linkages, Gwadar port also provides a military base to China by opening up the passageway to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The military groundworks in favor of both China and Pakistan as not only will China be able to create a regional control over other Asian maritime facilities, but Pakistan, with the help of China’s advanced oceanic surveillance, will be equipped with the monitoring capabilities to detect and counter any threat coming from Its regional rival India. Moreover, it is also essential for China to expand its political strength in the form of naval and military power to compete with the already developed control of the US over the Strait of Malacca that extends along the coast of Malaysia and Indonesia.
The evolving nature of Pakistan China Maritime security collaboration is mutually beneficial across multiple dimensions. It provides a joint front of peace and security in terms of regional stability as well as a channel for economic prosperity for all the stakeholders involved. Certain factors are necessary to ensure the vitality of this cooperative initiative.
According to Regional Security Complex Theory, securitization is more intense between the countries inside of the regional security complex, patterned to the security interdependence of the region, a security cluster. Great outside power can penetrate it. RSCT leads to positive security interdependence by making shared security community or negative, including securitization, which leads to conflict formation. The defense pacts and agreements will undoubtedly lead to negative security interdependence by considering the region’s states’ dynamics.
If one state’s influence increases, it poses a certain kind of challenge the stability of the other power, which assumes that it would confront my state in the future and challenge security and survival with increasing power. To eliminate this risk, great powers interfere, thwarting each other’s efforts so that they can not create any kind of problem to the interests. Great powers also work together to pursue mutual interest and shared goals in different fields. One does not trust others’ ambitions amid itself since every state in international politics struggles to maximize its own security and minimize potential or long-term threats at others’ expense. The cooperation is often limited to a point where there comes a national security matter.
Today, the analysts have agreed that the current era is the era of fifth-generation warfare. It is the most complex of all warfare generations as there is so much ambiguity in defining it due to its vast domain. Marine Lt Col Stanton Coerr described it as a generation of warfare “espoused by [the likes of] al Qaeda… with aspirations of setting up alternative political systems… they’re opportunists, intent only on destruction. But even pointless violence can have a perverse logic, for the sudden, irrational destruction undermines the idea that nations… are viable in the modern world.” This can be achieved by creating frustration among the masses or creating a conflict in ideologies and identities.