Malaysia is located between the Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea on one side, and the Indian Ocean and the Malacca Straits on the other, making it a country located in the middle of Southeast Asia. Its geographical feature positions Malaysia as a continental-rooted maritime nation, the linchpin bridge between the two ocean regions (“Defence White Paper”). This undoubtedly indicates that Malaysia priority will be placed upon matters pertaining maritime domain and maritime security.
The oceans cover more than 70% of the surface of our earth which -in return- indicates that it also plays a part in regulating our Earth’s climate. Likewise, oceans serve as a channel for approximately 80% of the world’s global trade. According to the director of UNCTAD’s Division on International Trade on Goods and Services and Commodities, ‘The total ocean’s economy per year is estimated to be approximately US$3-6 trillion and over 350 a million jobs are connected to ocean economy’. This stat proposes that more than half of the world’s population’s income comes from the ocean economy.
Declaring coral reefs as ‘Marine Protected Areas’ is just the initial step. We must educate the local community about the coral reefs, how to preserve them, and how to practice safe fishing techniques without disrupting the local ecosystem. Also, we must give awareness to the general public about the importance of these reefs. Avoid littering the beaches when we go out should the number one priority. Preserving water, planting trees and recycling are among the few steps we can take as an individual to help save these reefs.
The rivalry between the world powers China and the US is no longer restricted to the Pacific. The recent alliances and moves by both nations have shifted their directions towards the Indian Ocean. With India taking a front seat in the battleship holstered by the US, the maritime security of the region is distributed among competing contenders. With India all set to launch its hegemony over the Indian Ocean to counter the growing military and economic powers of China, Pakistan’s role becomes all the more essential to bring peace and stability in the maritime region. The Aman exercise provides Pakistan with the opportunity to establish itself as the guardian of peaceful coexistence in the region.
This article aims to review the security challenges faced by maritime industry involving risks emanating through marine environment, threats to sustainable maritime economics, mutual international efforts to preserve stability, security in maritime areas of interest to maintain the flow of commodities throughout the World and conventional maritime security risks as well as the potential economic benefits of the Arctic Region occurring from increasingly diminishing of the sea ice. Considering recent developments in the Arctic and the new security concerns, emerging security strategies in the Arctic Region with a view to its effects on Maritime Economics is emphasized.
Several analysts who have interviewed or maintain contacts with Chinese foreign policymakers have noted that according to their sources, China’s long-term priority in Pakistan has been to prioritize security concerns over economic ones. Several analysts who have interviewed or contacted China’s foreign policymakers claim that China’s long-term priority in Pakistan is to prioritize security over economic interests, according to their sources.
Apart from economic linkages, Gwadar port also provides a military base to China by opening up the passageway to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The military groundworks in favor of both China and Pakistan as not only will China be able to create a regional control over other Asian maritime facilities, but Pakistan, with the help of China’s advanced oceanic surveillance, will be equipped with the monitoring capabilities to detect and counter any threat coming from Its regional rival India. Moreover, it is also essential for China to expand its political strength in the form of naval and military power to compete with the already developed control of the US over the Strait of Malacca that extends along the coast of Malaysia and Indonesia.
The evolving nature of Pakistan China Maritime security collaboration is mutually beneficial across multiple dimensions. It provides a joint front of peace and security in terms of regional stability as well as a channel for economic prosperity for all the stakeholders involved. Certain factors are necessary to ensure the vitality of this cooperative initiative.